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Sweet Home, Oregon
May 9, 2012     The New Era Paper
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May 9, 2012

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:1 T r - May 9, 2012 Page 15 n s] Lq )Its From page 1 The tests are part of the Corps' effort to implement the National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration Fisheries and U.S. Fish and Wildlife ser- vices' 2008 biological opinion, which specifies actions that the Corps and its partners, such as the Bonneville Power Adminis- tration, should take to reduce ef- fects on upper Willamette River fish species listed in the Endan- ger Species Act, Clemens said. When the Corps built the dam, "we stuck a great big stop sign in the middle of the river," Clemens said. When Foster was "built, that wasn't considered a problem. The wild fish were simply going to be replaced by hatchery fish. U.S. understanding and values surrounding the fish have changed since then. "We're not just doing this because we've been told to do it," Clemens said. Well before the opinion was issued in 2008, the Corps was trying to improve fish passage. Among its efforts has been a temperature control structure at Cougar Dam on the McKenzie River. "Here at Foster Dam this fall, we're going to start construction on an adult handling facility," Clemens said. That facility will include a series of gates and cor- rals to separate hatchery and wild fish without handling them by hand. The fish will move through a water-to-water connection onto trucks for transport back down- stream for hatchery fish and up- Stream for wild fish. Right now, the fish are collected into a single basket and separated by hand. Some 1,200 Chinook salmon made their way upstream last year, Griffith said. That number is typically in the high hundreds. Currently, the Corps lowers Foster Lake to 615 above sea lev- el to allow juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon passage down- stream. Water rushes through a weir at about 300 cubic feet per second. During the recent repairs to the Foster Dam spillway gates, the Corps ordered more stop logs, allowing the dam to place the weir higher, with a longer drop to the surface of the spillway, said Corps fish biologist Dave Grif- fith. Survival won't be as good at the higher elevation, but raising the weir creates more distance be- tween the entrance to the turbines and the weir, which means fewer fish overall will travel through the turbines, instead going over the spillway. That move could result in a net increase in fish survival, Grif- fith said, but the Corps won't know whether that's true until it finishes testing. The agency wants to improve survival and down-passage effi- ciency, which is the percentage of fish that find a way downstream, at its dams. he said, although down-passage efficiency isn't a big issue at Foster. In the testing, the Corps is comparing data from passage over the spillway at two differ- ent elevations and six different turbine blade configurations, in- cluding the angle of the blades and the amount of water passing through them. Juvenile hatch- DID YOU KNOW? More Americans read printed newspapers than own dogs! Join The Pack! SUBSCRIBE! Photos by Sean C. Morgan Researchers pull juvenile steelhead from the South Santiam River below Foster Dam. The fish are located by brightly colored balloons, visible at the lower right, that force them to the surface. Once captured in the net, researchers remove the balloons and tags then transfer the fish to the South Santiam Fish Hatchery, where they are held for 48 hours for obser- vation following their journey through the dam. ery steeihead, provided by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are tagged and fitted with uninflated balloons. The balloons fill with air us- ing a chemical time-release mech- anism, dragging the juveniles to the surface following their 60- to 90-second ride through the pow- erhouse or over the spillway. Researchers collect the fish by boat and by net from the dam. The fish are transported to the South Santiam Hatchery and held for 48 hours to assess how many are injured or killed by the pas- sage. Sensor fish, a small tube with sensors and balloons, are also sent through the passages to mea- sure the force, pressure and ac- celeration faced by the steelhead and salmon. Pressure affects the gases in the fishes' blood as well as their swim bladders. About a dozen researchers under contract with the Corps are working around the dam. The majority of them are from Penn- sylvania. Testing will continue through most of May, and Foster Dam Road is closed from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. through May 24. One lane is open throughout the rest of the day. 2'. A sensor 'fish" lies ready to send through Foster's turbines. / Hutchins From page 14 cisely as it would be at 100 yards. The popular 308/7.62 match load used by police and military snipers only produces about half of that at 1,000 yards. The previ- ous example of the 7mm Magnum will do about 600 foot-pounds, and even the mighty 300 Ultra Mag. will barely get you 1,000. Police agencies use the .308 Winchester because the military does, kind of a monkey see-mon- key-do scenario, but also because it is an inherently accurate cartridge. The average law enforcement sniper shot is only around 50 yards, so flattened bullet trajectory is a non-issue but extreme accuracy is. If your interest is only in hitting targets, a 6.5-284, 260 Ackley etc. is all that is needed, as only a flat trajectory matters. But if you want to cleanly kill game, you will have to step up to the 30-caliber mag- nums and large- capacity 338s. Before you try to emulate your favorite TV pronghom sniper, there are a multitude of factors that must be taken into account and an im- mense amount 6f real-world shoot- ing to do and information to down- load into your grey matter - unless you just want to rely on luck. Jeff Hutchins writes occasionally about firearms-related topics for The New Era. He operates Range- master Gunworks at 29352 Hwy 34, outside Corvallis. Jeanne Duncan of Pacific Northwest National Lab in Tri-Cities, Wash., prepares to send a steelhead smelt through Foster Dam's turbines. DIN DEE lifiLEli FOR ALL YOUR SPORTING GOOD NEEDS 610 MAIN STREET l 541.367.5544 I HOURS: MEN.- SAT. 9 - 6 [ SUN. 10 - 4 [llill[Im- 5/SlOg 130+COLORS Q t gBgl BIHI:KB- SLSO PA[K 6-PACK Tllil5H! 5RILL" ssgg.og LIL TEXT REG. $629.00 WIiPEffirdI8 - ZO'I, OFF 20+STYLES . 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